Conjunctive Adverb
Conjunctive Adverb

In this lesson you will earn the definition of a conjunctive adverb and study examples of conjunctive adverbs.
Conjunctive Adverb Definition
  • A conjunctive adverb:
  •  shows the relationship between, and join together, two sentences or clauses
  • shows cause and effect, sequence, contrast, comparison, or other relationships
  • Use a semicolon to join two independent clauses
  • I want to sleep; however, I need to study.
  • Use a comma following the conjunctive adverb when it appears at the beginning of the second clause
  • The exam was very difficult; consequently, the students received only average grades.
  • A conjunctive adverb used at the beginning of a sentence uses a comma to set it off, with a period taking the place of a semicolon
  • The date was over. Therefore, I went home.
  • A conjunctive adverb placed within a clause uses commas to set it off
  • The date is over. I will, therefore, go home.
  • Like other adverbs, conjunctive adverbs may move around in the clause (or sentence) in which they appear. When they appear at the end of the clause, they are preceded by a comma. If they appear in the middle of the clause, they are normally enclosed in commas, though this rule is not absolute and is not always applied to very short clauses.
  • Learn the adverb spelling rules
Conjunctive Adverb Examples
  • The exam was very difficult; consequently, the students received only average grades.
  • There was practically no food in the refrigerator; therefore, we had to go shopping.
  • Brent enjoys video games; thus, he is in good company.
  • He went to the store; however, he did not buy anything.
  • The following words are conjunctive adverbs
  • accordingly, also, anyhow, anyway, again, besides, certainly, consequently, contrarily, finally, further, furthermore, elsewhere, hence, henceforth, however, in contrast, incidentally, indeed, instead, likewise, meanwhile, moreover, namely, nevertheless, next, nonetheless, now, otherwise, similarly, so*, subsequently, still, that is, then, thereafter, therefore, thus, undoubtedly
  • * so is a conjunctive adverb, when its meaning is therefore; otherwise, it can be either a coordinate conjunction or a subordinate conjunction
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