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Grammar: past participle adjectives
Videos: past participle adjectives, cartoon
Past Participle Adjectives

Today you are going to learn about past participle adjectives an important part of English grammar.
 
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Grammar: Past Participle Adjectives (reading and grammar)

Definition of a past participle adjective.
  • A past participle adjective:
  • indicates a past or completed action or time
  • is formed from a verb using the perfect aspect and the passive voice
  • does not take an object
  • is often called the -ed form
  • often has the same form as the simple past of the verb
  • Note: only transitive verbs can use their past participles as adjectives
Past Participle Adjective Examples
  • The bored student.
  • The confused class. (all the students)
  • The chicken has eaten. (perfect aspect)
  • The chicken was eaten. (passive voice)
  • The following words are past participle adjectives
  • verb - present participle - past participle
  • aggravate - aggravating - aggravated
  • alarm - alarming - alarmed
  • amaze - amazing - amazed
  • amuse - amusing - amused
  • annoy - annoying - annoyed
  • appall - appalling - appalled
  • astonish - astonishing - astonished
  • astound - astounding - astounded
  • bewilder - bewildering - bewildered
  • bore - boring - bored
  • calm - calming - calmed
  • captivate - captivating - captivated
  • challenge - challenging - challenged
  • charm - charming - charmed
  • comfort - comforting - comforted
  • compel - compelling - compelled
  • confuse - confusing - confused
  • convince - convincing - convinced
  • depress - depressing - depressed
  • devastate - devastating - devastating
  • disappoint - disappointing - disappointed
  • disgust - disgusting - disgusted
  • distract - distracting - distracted
  • distress - distressing - distressed
  • disturb - disturbing - disturbed
  • embarrass - embarrassing - embarrassed
  • enchant - enchanting - enchanted
  • encourage - encouraging - encouraged
  • entertain - entertaining - entertained
  • excite - exciting - excited
  • frighten - frightening - frightened
  • humiliate - humiliating - humiliated
  • infuriate - infuriating - infuriated
  • inspire - inspiring - inspired
  • insult - insulting - insulted
  • interest - interesting - interested
  • intimidate - intimidating - intimidated
  • intrigue - intriguing - intrigued
  • mislead - misleading - misled
  • mystify - mystifying - mystified
  • overwhelm - overwhelming - overwhelmed
  • please - pleasing - pleased
  • puzzle - puzzling - puzzled
  • refresh - refreshing - refreshed
  • relax - relaxing - relaxed
  • reward - rewarding - rewarded
  • satisfy - satisfying - satisfied
  • shock - shocking - shocked
  • sicken - sickening - sickened
  • startle - startling - startled
  • surprise - surprising - surprised
  • tempt - tempting - tempted
  • terrify - terrifying - terrified
  • threaten - threatening - threatened
  • tire - tiring - tired
  • welcome - welcoming - welcomed
  • worry - worrying - worried
Fun Easy English Grammar Lessons
 
Video: Grammar Past Participle Adjectives (listening, reading, and grammar)
 
Video: Grammar Past Participle Adjectives Cartoon (listening, reading, and grammar)
 
Video Information: Grammar Past Participle Adjectives Cartoon (reading and grammar)
  • The -ing form of the verb expresses the cause of the feeling.
  • The -ed form of the verb expresses the result.
  • In the case of the verb "to bore" Akira said she is BORING which means Akira is actually BORING and not the class.
  • Akira should say because this class is BORING, I am BORED, or simply I am BORED.
  • The class is the cause of her feeling, so it is described with an -ing form, in this case BORING.
  • Her feeling, or the result, is described with an -ed form, in this case BORED.
  • Basically you should remember that things can only be described with the -ing form because things cannot produce feelings.
  • People can be described with either the -ing or -ed forms because they can produce feelings in other people or experience feelings themselves.
From YOUR Teacher: Past Participle Adjectives

Hopefully all the information from Akira and Aleem in the video made understanding past participle adjectives a little easier.
 
 
 
 
 
 
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