Fun Easy English Classroom June 14
 
 
 
 

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Learn about
conjunctive adverbs
Conjunctive Adverbs

Today in the classroom you are going to learn about conjunctive adverbs an important part of English grammar.
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Grammar: Conjunctive Adverbs

Definition of a conjunctive adverb.
  • A conjunctive adverb:
  •  shows the relationship between, and join together, two sentences or clauses
  • shows cause and effect, sequence, contrast, comparison, or other relationships
  • Use a semicolon to join two independent clauses
  • I want to sleep; however, I need to study.
  • Use a comma following the conjunctive adverb when it appears at the beginning of the second clause
  • The exam was very difficult; consequently, the students received only average grades.
  • A conjunctive adverb used at the beginning of a sentence uses a comma to set it off, with a period taking the place of a semicolon
  • The date was over. Therefore, I went home.
  • A conjunctive adverb placed within a clause uses commas to set it off
  • The date is over. I will, therefore, go home.
  • Like other adverbs, conjunctive adverbs may move around in the clause (or sentence) in which they appear. When they appear at the end of the clause, they are preceded by a comma. If they appear in the middle of the clause, they are normally enclosed in commas, though this rule is not absolute and is not always applied to very short clauses.
  • Learn the adverb spelling rules
Conjunctive Adverb Examples
  • The exam was very difficult; consequently, the students received only average grades.
  • There was practically no food in the refrigerator; therefore, we had to go shopping.
  • Brent enjoys video games; thus, he is in good company.
  • He went to the store; however, he did not buy anything.
  • The following words are conjunctive adverbs
  • accordingly, also, anyhow, anyway, again, besides, certainly, consequently, contrarily, finally, further, furthermore, elsewhere, hence, henceforth, however, in contrast, incidentally, indeed, instead, likewise, meanwhile, moreover, namely, nevertheless, next, nonetheless, now, otherwise, similarly, so*, subsequently, still, that is, then, thereafter, therefore, thus, undoubtedly
  • * so is a conjunctive adverb, when its meaning is therefore; otherwise, it can be either a coordinate conjunction or a subordinate conjunction
Fun Easy English Grammar Lessons
From YOUR Teacher: Conjunctive Adverbs

Using conjunctive adverbs correctly can take a little time to learn. If you can use conjunctive adverbs in conversation you will sound more natural and will reach a higher level of fluency in English.
 
Additional Lessons
About These Lessons

The following classroom lessons are great for students who want additional conversation, listening, and reading practice. Please post a comment at the bottom of this page in the Facebook Comments window with your thoughts about these lessons.
  • Conversation Lesson - Advanced Level. Dialogs for everyday use. Short situational dialogs for students of English as a Foreign (EFL) or Second (ESL) Language with a written conversation and a conversation notes section.
Conversation Lesson 17 - Catching Up After Class
(Advanced - Conversation, Reading)

Dialogs for everyday use. Short situational dialogs for students of English as a Foreign (EFL) or Second (ESL) Language.
Catching Up After Class

LINDA: Hey! How did your physics exam go?

FRANK: Not bad, thanks. I’m just glad it’s over! How about you … how’d your presentation go?

LINDA: Oh, it went really well. Thanks for helping me with it!

FRANK: No problem. So … do you feel like studying tomorrow for our math exam?

LINDA: Yeah, sure! Come over around 10:00, after breakfast.

FRANK: All right. I’ll bring my notes.
Conversation Notes
  • Hey! is a friendly expression meaning “hello.”
  • How did your physics exam go? is a way of saying “How was your physics exam?”
  • I’m just glad … Notice the stress on “glad.” “Just” is used for emphasis before an adjective here.
  • How about you … Notice the intonation falls here because the speaker is going to follow it up with a detailed question.
  • How’d your presentation … Notice the contraction for “How did” sounds like /howdj/ and “your” sounds like /yer/.
  • Do you feel like here has the meaning of “do you want to.” Notice “do you feel like” is followed by an “-ing” verb (studying).
  • Come over here has the meaning of “come to my house.”
  • Notes. Students take notes about what the teacher says during a lecture.
Source: U.S. State Department
Additional Conversation
Conversation

This is a collection of 30 situational conversations which focus on a wide variety of communicative and natural encounters in English....these lessons are for beginning students.
Conversation

This is a collection of 36 situational conversations which focus on spoken American English in a relatively natural way....these lessons are for intermediate students.
Conversation

English conversation lessons. 52 lessons covering pronunciation, speaking, writing, and grammar topics....these lessons are for beginning students.
Conversation

English conversation lessons. 30 lessons focusing mostly on communication and grammar topics....these lessons are for intermediate students.
Additional Information
Study Tips
(Beginner - Listening)

Avoid Ineffective Study Methods. An audio lesson to help you study English more effectively. The English is spoken at 75% of normal speed. Great English study tips.
Click here to visit the lesson page with the written script for this audio program.
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