Fun Easy English Classroom March 18
 
 
 
 

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plural nouns
Plural Nouns

Today in the Fun Easy English classroom you are going to learn about plural nouns an important part of English grammar.
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Grammar: Plural Nouns

Definition of a plural nouns.
  • A plural noun:
  • is a word used to describe two or more things
  • is usually formed to indicate number by adding "s" or "es"
  • can be formed by changing the last letter before adding "s"
  • can also be formed in other ways
Plural Noun Examples
  • Plural nouns formed by adding an "s" to the singular form of the noun
  • boy-boys, girl-girls, cat-cats, table-tables, book-books, tree-trees, auto-autos, photo-photos, radio-radios, studio-studios
  • Plural nouns formed by adding an "es" to the singular form of nouns ending in "ch", "s", "sh", "x"
  • glass-glasses, dish-dishes, ditch-ditches, wish-wishes, coach-coaches, kiss-kisses, tax-taxes
  • Plural nouns formed by adding an "es" to the singular form of nouns ending in "o" and preceded by a consonant
  • hero-heroes, tornado-tornados-tornadoes (can end in either "s" or "es"), potato-potatoes, tomato-tomatoes
  • Note: nouns of Italian or Spanish origin are exceptions to this rule
  • ie: canto-cantos, grotto-grottos, piano-pianos, portico-porticos, quarto-quartos, solo-solos
  • Plural nouns formed by changing the "f" into a "v" and adding "es"
  • half-halves, leaf-leaves, calf-calves
  • Note: some just add an "s"
  • ie: proof-proofs, muff-muffs
  • Note: some can do either
  • ie: dwarf-dwarfs-dwarves, hoof-hoofs-hooves, staff-staffs-staves
  • Plural nouns formed by dropping the "y" and adding "ies" of nouns ending in "y" and preceded by a consonant
  • cherry-cherries, lady-ladies, story-stories, party-parties
  • Plural nouns formed by simply changing the vowel sound of the singular form
  • foot-feet, goose-geese, louse-lice, man-men, mouse-mice, tooth-teeth, woman-women, mouse-mice
  • Plural nouns where the singular and plural forms are different
  • child-children, ox-oxen, person-people
  • Plural nouns where the singular and plural forms are the same
  • cod, series, trout, deer, fish, moose, offspring, series, sheep, species
  • Plural nouns that have no singular form
  • annals, billiards, cattle, clothes, measles, nuptials, thanks, tidings, belongings, brains (intellect), clothes, congratulations, earnings, eyeglasses, goods, groceries, jeans, looks (appearance), manners (social behavior), pajamas, pants, scissors, shorts, sunglasses, surroundings, tropics, trousers
  • Plural nouns that consist of two parts and have no singular form but are considered to be one unit
  • scissors, trousers, tweezers, pants
  • Plural nouns where the plural form is retained such as nouns from foreign languages
  • analysis-analyses, appendix-appendices, bacterium-bacteria, basis-bases, crisis-crises, criterion-criteria, curriculum-curricula, datum-data, formula-formulae, hypothesis-hypotheses, medium-media, memorandum-memoranda, parenthesis-parentheses, phenomenon-phenomena, syllabus-syllabi, thesis-theses
From YOUR Teacher: Plural Nouns

Hey plural nouns are really kind of difficult if you compare them to singular nouns. Be sure to study the different ways to form plural nouns above.
Test: Grammar Plural Nouns

It is very important to make sure the words in a sentence have singular and plural agreement. In the following test, choose the correct sentences.
1.  Choose the correct sentence.

     a.  She is taking less classes this semester.
     b.  She is taking fewer classes this semester.
2.  Choose the correct sentence.

     a.  That student is always late for class. He annoys the teacher.
     b.  That student is always late for class. They annoy the teacher.
3.  Choose the correct sentence.

     a.  That food has a lot of sugars.
     b.  That food has a lot of sugar.
4.  Choose the correct sentence.

     a.  Every students was on time for class this morning.
     b.  Every student was on time for class this morning.
5.  Choose the correct sentence.

     a.  This news is very exciting.
     b.  These news is very exciting.
6.  Choose the correct sentence.

     a.  There are fewer calories in light beer than regular beer.
     b.  There are less calories in light beer than regular beer.
7.  Choose the correct sentence.

     a.  John always gives his wife a lot of jewelry.
     b.  John always gives his wife a lot of jewelries.
8.  Choose the correct sentence.

     a.  We bought a lot of used furniture at a garage sale.
     b.  We bought a lot of used furnitures at a garage sale.
9.  Choose the correct sentence.

     a.  The new equipments for the basketball team has arrived.
     b.  The new equipment for the basketball team has arrived.
10.  Choose the correct sentence.

     a.  Mayumi bought a little apples for her lunches this week.
     b.  Mayumi bought a few apples for her lunch this week.
 
Additional Lessons
About These Lessons

The following classroom lessons are great for students who want additional conversation, listening, and reading practice. Please post a comment at the bottom of this page in the Facebook Comments window with your thoughts about these lessons.
  • 60 Second News - Beginner Level. A one minute video of recent world news. The English is spoken at 75% of normal speed. Great listening and reading practice. News stories are posted on weekdays only.
  • Learning English - Beginner Level. A 30 minute audio broadcast of recent world news. The English is spoken at 75% of normal speed. Great listening practice.
  • Conversation Lesson - Intermediate Level. Let's Learn English conversation lesson with a conversation video, a video script, audio listening practice, and a new words section.
60 Second News
(Beginner - Listening, Reading)

March 18, 2019

A one minute video of recent world news.
Great reading and listening practice.
The English is spoken at 75% of normal speed.
News stories are posted on weekdays only.
 
Learning English
(Beginner - Listening)

March 18, 2019 - A 30 minute audio broadcast of recent world news. The English is spoken at 75% of normal speed. Great listening practice.
 
Conversation Lesson 25 - Only Human
(Intermediate - Conversation, Listening, Reading)

In this lesson Lightning Bolt Lady goes looking for her superpowers. But will she ever find them? And will she ever help...anyone?
Lesson Video

Watch the video and then read the video script.
Video Script

ANNOUNCER: When last we saw Anna, she had made a new friend. And they had been talking about superheroes for a while when suddenly Anna became Lightning Bolt Lady!
ANNOUNCER: She tried to find her superpowers. But it did not go well.
ANNOUNCER: She can’t fly, become invisible or create a force field. And she really cannot walk through walls. Ouch, Lightning Bolt Lady.
ANNOUNCER: She had been walking into that wall for about 15 minutes when she had a great idea.
LIGHTNING BOLT LADY: I just had a great idea!
ANNOUNCER: I can’t wait to hear this one! But first, let’s talk about grammar.
ANNOUNCER: Professor Bot is on vacation this week. I’m the announcer. So, I’m going to tell you about the past perfect continuous.
ANNOUNCER: We use this verb tense to show that an action started in the past and continued to another time or action in the past.
ANNOUNCER: For example, I said, “She had been walking into that wall for about 15 minutes when she had a great idea.”
ANNOUNCER: Had been walking is the past perfect continuous of the verb walk. It’s had been plus the -ing form of the verb.
ANNOUNCER: You’ll hear me use this verb tense a few more times today.
ANNOUNCER: Now, what am I forgetting? Oh right! Lightning Bolt Lady’s great idea.
LIGHTNING BOLT LADY: If I want to know my superpowers, I’ll need to learn about lightning!
ANNOUNCER: So, she read many books about lightning.
LIGHTNING BOLT LADY: Wow. A lightning strike usually lasts less than a second.
(She tells this to a person and he slowly moves away.)
LIGHTNING BOLT LADY: Lightning is really fast and I like speed walking. So, maybe one of my superpowers is super-speed walking! (to stranger) Bye!
(She begins to super-speed walk.)
LIGHTNING BOLT LADY: Check! Super-speed walking is definitely one of my superpowers.
LIGHTNING BOLT LADY: Lightning has millions of volts of electricity. Amazing!
(She puts her hand up and lightning bolts shoot from her fingers.)

LIGHTNING BOLT LADY: Wow! I can charge a lot of batteries with this superpower!
ANNOUNCER: She had been looking for hours for someone to help when she found her chance.
WOMAN: Hello? Hello? I’m sorry. I’m going to have to call you back. My phone is dying.
LIGHTNING BOLT LADY: Excuse me, I can charge your phone.
WOMAN: Really? Thanks!
LIGHTNING BOLT LADY: I’m Lightning Bolt Lady!
(She takes the woman's phone and shoots it with a lightning bolt. But it turns into ashes. Then, she gives the woman lots of money and smiles and says goodbye.)

ANNOUNCER: She had been practicing her superpowers all day. Suddenly, she heard a terrible sound – a child’s disappointment.
ANNOUNCER: These children tried to light a fire for over an hour. But then, they gave up.
PARENT: Hey kids, that wood will never burn. It’is too wet.
LIGHTNING BOLT LADY: Small humans, what is wrong?
CHILD: Stranger danger!
LIGHTNING BOLT LADY: I’m Lightning Bolt Lady!
YOUNG MAN: Oh no. It’s you.
LIGHTNING BOLT LADY: (to YOUNG MAN:) We meet again. And guess what: I found my superpowers.
CHILD: Well, we need a fire to toast the marshmallows to make S’mores.
LIGHTNING BOLT LADY: I can help.
YOUNG MAN: We don’t need a super-speed walker but thanks!
LIGHTNING BOLT LADY: Super-speed walking is just one of my superpowers. I can also do this!
(She tries to use her lightning bolts but it doesn't go well.)
LIGHTNING BOLT LADY: Sorry! Let me do it again.
(She lights the fire with her lightning bolts.)
CHILDREN: Thanks, Lightning Bolt Lady!
YOUNG MAN: Lightning Bolt Lady
LIGHTNING BOLT LADY: You’re welcome. But you don’t have enough firewood. Using my super-speed walking, I will get more.
(She super-speed walks around to get firewood.)
PARENT: Lightning Bolt Lady, come back! A lightning storm is coming!
LIGHTNING BOLT LADY: Not a chance! There’s not a cloud in the …
CHILD: Lightning Bolt Lady, are you okay?
CHILD: Where's your super-suit?
ANNA: Oh no! I've lost my superpowers!
YOUNG MAN: It's starting to rain. Do you want to go inside and eat some S’mores?
ANNA: You read my mind.
ANNA: You know, I thought mind reading would be one of my superpowers. But it wasn’t.
CHILD: That’d be a cool superpower. But I’d rather be able to talk to animals.
CHILD: That would be a cool superpower.
Listening

Now practice listening to only the audio portion of the conversation.
Practice

Now, you try it!

First, read about the past perfect continuous verb tense below. Then, write two or three sentences in the Comments section about an action that started in the past and continued to another time or action.

Be sure to use past perfect continuous in each sentence!

For example: They had been studying English for two years before they began school in Washington, D.C.

Past Perfect Continuous

We use the past perfect continuous verb tense in two ways:

Use #1

To show that something started in the past and continued up until another time or action in the past

Examples:

They had been talking about superheroes for a while when suddenly Anna became Lightning Bolt Lady!
How long had Lightning Bolt Lady been trying to find her superpowers?
She'd not been trying for more than a day when she found her chance.

Use #2

To show that something caused something else in the past

Examples:

Lightning Bolt Lady was happy because she had been using her superpowers all day.
The children were disappointed because they'd been wanting to make S’mores.
The young man was surprised when Lightning Bolt Lady arrived because he had not been waiting for her.

Notice that, with the past perfect continuous, we often shorten the word had with personal pronouns: I’d / you'd / he'd / she'd / we'd / they'd.

Test Yourself

How well do you know the grammar from Level 2? Test yourself!

In Lesson 25, you will see examples of grammar that you have learned in Level 2. Look for sentences in Lesson 25 with:

Past perfect
Conditionals
Adverb Clauses
Prepositions
Passive voice
Other grammar you've learned in Level 2

Then, write those sentences in the Comments section. For example: She had been walking into that wall for about 15 minutes when she had a great idea. (The adverb clause is "when she had a great idea.")
New Words
  • ashn. the soft gray powder that remains after something, such as wood, has been completely burned and destroyed by fire
  • averageadj. a number that is calculated by adding quantities together and then dividing the total by the number of quantities
  • batteryn. a device that is placed inside a machine (such as a clock, toy, or car) to supply it with electricity
  • causev. something or someone that makes something happen or exist
  • chargev. to give an amount of electricity to something
  • cloudn. a white or gray mass in the sky that is made of many very small drops of water
  • definitelyadv. without doubt
  • disappointmentn. the state of feeling of being disappointed
  • firewoodn. wood used to make fire
  • give upphrasal verb. to stop an activity or effort
  • marshmallown. a soft, white, sweet food made of sugar and eggs
  • millionn. the number 1,000,000
  • not a chanceexpression. there is no possibility
  • secondn. a unit of time that is equal to 1/60 of a minute
  • s’moresn. a sweet snack consisting of a chocolate bar and toasted marshmallows sandwiched between graham crackers
  • striken. the act of hitting something with force
  • terribleadj. very shocking and upsetting
  • voltn. a unit for measuring the force of an electrical current
Conversation Lessons

Study all 30 English intermediate conversation lessons. Let's Learn English conversation lessons each with a conversation video, a video script, audio listening practice, and a new words section. These lessons are for intermediate students.
Conversation Lessons

Study all 52 English beginner conversation lessons. Let's Learn English conversation lessons each with a conversation video, a video script, audio listening practice, video speaking practice, video pronunciation practice, a new words section, and a writing activity. These lessons are for beginning students.
Source: Voice of America
Additional Information
Study Tips
(Beginner - Listening)

Avoid Ineffective Study Methods. An audio lesson to help you study English more effectively. The English is spoken at 75% of normal speed. Great English study tips.
Click here to visit the lesson page with the written script for this audio program.
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  Resources

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